Key to Arisaema species of the world

Guy & Liliane Gusman, Eric Gouda, Pim Bongaerts & Joost van Gijn

 

Key 5a. Confirmatory characters

Characters: 61 in data, 61 included, 50 in key.
Items: 157 in data, 157 included, 185 in key.
Parameters: Rbase = 1.40 Abase = 2.00 Reuse = 1.01 Varywt = .80
Characters included: 1–61, Character reliabilities: 1–61,5.0

1(0).
  • Distribution Malesian ... 2
  • Distribution Indochinese... 12
  • Distribution Sino-Japanese... 28
  • Distribution Sino-Himalayan... 68
  • Distribution East African... 120
  • Distribution Arabian... 127
  • Distribution North American... 129
  • Distribution South Indian... 132

2(1).
  • Inflorescence spadix included in or slightly exserted from tube ... 3
  • Inflorescence spadix protruding but not exceeding spathe... 8
  • Inflorescence spadix longer than spathe... 9

3(2).
  • Shoot leaf trifoliolate ... 4
  • Shoot leaf pedate... Arisaema scortechinii
  • Shoot leaf radiate... Arisaema polyphyllum

4(3).
  • Plant penducle shorter than ... 5
  • Plant penducle nearly the size of... 6

5(4).
  • Shoot 1 leaf at most; inflorescence appendage extremity filiform; inflorescence limb does not have dark coloured transverse cross-band ... Arisaema microspadix
  • Shoot more than 1 leave; inflorescence appendage extremity thin and 1-2 mm across; inflorescence limb has dark coloured transverse cross-band... Arisaema ramulosum

6(4).
  • Shoot 1 leaf at most; inflorescence appendage extremity thin and 1-2 mm across ... Arisaema barbatum
  • Shoot more than 1 leave; inflorescence appendage extremity filiform... 7

7(6).
  • Inflorescence limb has dark coloured transverse cross-band ... Arisaema laminatum
  • Inflorescence limb does not have dark coloured transverse cross-band... Arisaema laminatum var. inclusumArisaema roxburghii

8(2).
  • Leaflets 3 at most; inflorescence appendage extremity is even; plant aseasonal and evergreen (section Anomala) ... Arisaema anomalum
  • Leaflets 5 at most; inflorescence appendage extremity bears capillary filaments; plant seasonally dormant and deciduous... Arisaema chumponense

9(2).
  • Plant penducle shorter than ... Arisaema filiforme
  • Plant penducle nearly the size of... 10
  • Plant penducle longer than... 11

10(9).
  • Leaflets 3 at most; inflorescence appendage extremity is even; inflorescence tube mouth-margins widely recurved or auriculate; inflorescence limb spotted ... Arisaema umbrinum
  • Leaflets 5 at most; inflorescence appendage extremity bears capillary filaments; inflorescence tube mouth-margins straight or slightly recurved; inflorescence limb plain/longitudinally striped... Arisaema ornatum

11(9).
  • Shoot 1 leaf at most; shoot leaf pedate; inflorescence tube mouth-margins widely recurved or auriculate; inflorescence appendage extremity is even ... Arisaema wrayi
  • Shoot more than 1 leave; shoot leaf trifoliolate; inflorescence tube mouth-margins straight or slightly recurved; inflorescence appendage extremity bears capillary filaments... Arisaema fimbriatum

12(1).
  • Shoot leaf trifoliolate ... 13
  • Shoot leaf pedate... 15
  • Shoot leaf radiate... 26

13(12).
  • Plant penducle shorter than ... 14
  • Plant penducle nearly the size of... Arisaema sp. ‘Sin Ho’

14(13).
  • Inflorescence appendage glabrous ... Arisaema prazeri
  • Inflorescence appendage bears neuters or bristles... Arisaema album

15(12).
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is even ... 16
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is knobbly/dentate... 21
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is echinate... Arisaema rhizomatum
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity bears short bristles... 22
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity bears capillary filaments... 23

16(15).
  • Inflorescence appendage glabrous ... 17
  • Inflorescence appendage bears neuters or bristles... 20

17(16).
  • Shoot size of the petiole or longer; leaflets 5 at most ... 18
  • Shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole; leaflets 3 at most... 19

18(17).
  • Leaflets terminated; inflorescence appendage basis conical; inflorescence appendage extremity thin and 1-2 mm across; inflorescence appendage subulate ... Arisaema sp. Sapa
  • Leaflets not terminated; inflorescence appendage basis cylindrical; inflorescence appendage extremity thicker than 1-2mm; inflorescence appendage apically clavate or cylindric... Arisaema rhizomatum

19(17).
  • Shoot pseudostem; plant seasonally dormant and deciduous ... Arisaema petiolulatum
  • Shoot petiole and peduncle wrapped in separate cataphylls; plant aseasonal and evergreen (section Anomala)... Arisaema bannaense

20(16).
  • Plant penducle shorter than; inflorescence appendage extremity thin and 1-2 mm across; inflorescence limb at the base has large white spot; inflorescence anthers (sub)sessile ... Arisaema inkiangense
  • Plant penducle longer than; inflorescence appendage extremity thicker than 1-2mm; inflorescence limb at the base does not have large white spot; inflorescence anthers stalked... Arisaema garrettii

21(15).
  • Leaflets 3 at most; plant aseasonal and evergreen (section Anomala); shoot petiole and peduncle wrapped in separate cataphylls; inflorescence appendage basis cylindrical ... Arisaema bannaense
  • Leaflets more than 5; plant seasonally dormant and deciduous; shoot pseudostem; inflorescence appendage basis conical... Arisaema decipiens

22(15).
  • Plant penducle shorter than; shoot petiole and peduncle wrapped in separate cataphylls; shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole; shoot 1 leaf at most ... Arisaema pingbianense
  • Plant penducle nearly the size of; shoot pseudostem; shoot size of the petiole or longer; shoot more than 1 leave... Arisaema calcareum

23(15).
  • Plant penducle shorter than ... 24
  • Plant penducle nearly the size of... Arisaema petelotii
  • Plant penducle longer than... 25

24(23).
  • Leaflets 3 at most; inflorescence tube mouth-margins widely recurved or auriculate; inflorescence spadices bisexual; inflorescence stigma penicillate ... Arisaema omkoiense
  • Leaflets 5 at most; inflorescence tube mouth-margins straight or slightly recurved; inflorescence spadices female only; inflorescence stigma capitate... Arisaema setosum

25(23).
  • Shoot pseudostem; shoot size of the petiole or longer; shoot more than 1 leave; inflorescence tube mouth-margins straight or slightly recurved ... Arisaema victoriae
  • Shoot petiole and peduncle wrapped in separate cataphylls; shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole; shoot 1 leaf at most; inflorescence tube mouth-margins widely recurved or auriculate... Arisaema balansae

26(12).
  • Inflorescence spadix included in or slightly exserted from tube; plant fruit peduncle nodding; tuber non-stoloniferous; shoot size of the petiole or longer ... 27
  • Inflorescence spadix protruding but not exceeding spathe; plant fruit peduncle erect; tuber stoloniferous; shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole... Arisaema kerrii

27(26).
  • Shoot 1 leaf at most; inflorescence tube mouth-margins straight or slightly recurved; inflorescence appendage extremity is knobbly/dentate ... Arisaema sukotaiense
  • Shoot more than 1 leave; inflorescence tube mouth-margins widely recurved or auriculate; inflorescence appendage extremity is even... Arisaema consanguineum

28(1).
  • Plant germination with aerial blade, simple ... 29
  • Plant germination with aerial blade, compound... 47
  • Plant germination with protocorm only, and no aerial blade... 64

29(28).
  • Shoot leaf trifoliolate ... 30
  • Shoot leaf pedate... 32
  • Shoot leaf radiate... 45

30(29).
  • Plant penducle shorter than; tuber phyllotaxis spirodistichous; inflorescence tube mouth-margins widely recurved or auriculate; inflorescence spadix included in or slightly exserted from tube ... 31
  • Plant penducle nearly the size of; tuber phyllotaxis quincuncial; inflorescence tube mouth-margins straight or slightly recurved; inflorescence spadix protruding but not exceeding spathe... Arisaema penicillatum

31(30).
  • Plant inflorescence emerges well before the foliage; tuber stoloniferous; shoot size of the petiole or longer; inflorescence limb not fornicate or galeate ... Arisaema ternatipartitum
  • Plant inflorescence emerges with the foliage; tuber non-stoloniferous; shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole; inflorescence limb fornicate or galeate... Arisaema ringens

32(29).
  • Plant penducle shorter than ... 33
  • Plant penducle nearly the size of... 43
  • Plant penducle longer than... Arisaema limbatum

33(32).
  • Tuber phyllotaxis quincuncial; inflorescence appendage (sub)sessile ... 34
  • Tuber phyllotaxis spirodistichous; inflorescence appendage stipitate... 37

34(33).
  • Plant central leaflet turned upwards ... 35
  • Plant central leaflet turned downwards... Arisaema kiushianum

35(34).
  • Inflorescence appendage glabrous ... Arisaema cordatum
  • Inflorescence appendage bears neuters or bristles... 36

36(35).
  • Inflorescence spadix included in or slightly exserted from tube ... Arisaema heterocephalum
  • Inflorescence spadix protruding but not exceeding spathe... Arisaema ilanense

37(33).
  • Leaflets central leaflet as long as or longer than ... 38
  • Leaflets central leaflet shorter than... 41

38(37).
  • Leaflets 5 at most ... 39
  • Leaflets more than 5... 40

39(38).
  • Plant inflorescence emerges well before the foliage; shoot size of the petiole or longer ... Arisaema aprile
  • Plant inflorescence emerges with the foliage; shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole... Arisaema amurense

40(38).
  • Shoot 1 leaf at most ... Arisaema ishizuchiense subsp. brevicollum
  • Shoot more than 1 leave... Arisaema nikoenseArisaema sachalinense

41(37).
  • Plant inflorescence emerges well before the foliage ... Arisaema undulatifolium
  • Plant inflorescence emerges with the foliage... 42

42(41).
  • Shoot size of the petiole or longer; shoot 1 leaf at most; leaflets more than 5; leaflets central leaflet petiolulate ... Arisaema ovale
  • Shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole; shoot more than 1 leave; leaflets 5 at most; leaflets central leaflet (sub)sessile... Arisaema longipedun-culatum

43(32).
  • Leaflets 5 at most ... 44
  • Leaflets more than 5... Arisaema minamitanii

44(43).
  • Shoot 1 leaf at most; inflorescence limb at the base does not have large white spot; inflorescence spadices female only; inflorescence spadix included in or slightly exserted from tube ... Arisaema ishizuchiense
  • Shoot more than 1 leave; inflorescence limb at the base has large white spot; inflorescence spadices bisexual; inflorescence spadix protruding but not exceeding spathe... Arisaema grapsospadix

45(29).
  • Shoot size of the petiole or longer; shoot more than 1 leave; inflorescence appendage extremity is even; plant central leaflet turned upwards ... 46
  • Shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole; shoot 1 leaf at most; inflorescence appendage extremity is spongy; plant central leaflet turned downwards... Arisaema taiwanense

46(45).
  • Leaflets terminated; inflorescence tube mouth-margins widely recurved or auriculate; inflorescence limb expanded, sometimes with conspicuous flaps; inflorescence spadix included in or slightly exserted from tube ... Arisaema consanguineum
  • Leaflets not terminated; inflorescence tube mouth-margins straight or slightly recurved; inflorescence limb slightly broader than tube; inflorescence spadix protruding but not exceeding spathe... Arisaema formosanum

47(28).
  • Shoot 1 leaf at most ... 48
  • Shoot more than 1 leave... 53

48(47).
  • Inflorescence limb ends in filiform head ... 49
  • Inflorescence limb does not end in filiform head... 50

49(48).
  • Plant penducle shorter than ... Arisaema maximowiczii
  • Plant penducle nearly the size of... Arisaema cucullatum
  • Plant penducle longer than... Arisaema heterophyllum

50(48).
  • Shoot size of the petiole or longer ... 51
  • Shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole... Arisaema sazensoo

51(50).
  • Leaflets central leaflet as long as or longer than ... Arisaema kurataeArisaema iyoanumArisaema serratum
  • Leaflets central leaflet shorter than... 52

52(51).
  • Leaflets central leaflet petiolulate; inflorescence limb has dark coloured transverse cross-band; inflorescence appendage extremity is knobbly/dentate ... Arisaema monophyllum
  • Leaflets central leaflet (sub)sessile; inflorescence limb does not have dark coloured transverse cross-band; inflorescence appendage extremity is even... Arisaema seppikoense

53(47).
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is even ... 54
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is knobbly/dentate... 60
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is spongy... Arisaema negishii
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is echinate... Arisaema negishii
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity bears short bristles... 62
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity bears capillary filaments... Arisaema negishii

54(53).
  • Inflorescence appendage stipitate; tuber phyllotaxis spirodistichous; inflorescence appendage glabrous ... 55
  • Inflorescence appendage (sub)sessile; tuber phyllotaxis quincuncial; inflorescence appendage bears neuters or bristles... 58

55(54).
  • Leaflets central leaflet petiolulate ... 56
  • Leaflets central leaflet (sub)sessile... 57

56(55).
  • Inflorescence limb at the base has large white spot; inflorescence appendage extremity thin and 1-2 mm across; inflorescence limb partially to totally translucent ... Arisaema tashiroi
  • Inflorescence limb at the base does not have large white spot; inflorescence appendage extremity thicker than 1-2mm; inflorescence limb opaque... Arisaema engleriArisaema serratumArisaema yamatense

57(55).
  • Leaflets 5 at most; inflorescence limb does not end in filiform head; plant inflorescence emerges with the foliage ... Arisaema sikokianum
  • Leaflets more than 5; inflorescence limb ends in filiform head; plant inflorescence emerges well before the foliage... Arisaema kishidae

58(54).
  • Plant central leaflet turned upwards; leaflets central leaflet as long as or longer than ... 59
  • Plant central leaflet turned downwards; leaflets central leaflet shorter than... Arisaema negishii

59(58).
  • Inflorescence spadix included in or slightly exserted from tube ... Arisaema heterocephalum
  • Inflorescence spadix protruding but not exceeding spathe... Arisaema ilanense

60(53).
  • Plant inflorescence emerges with the foliage ... 61
  • Plant inflorescence emerges well after the foliage... Arisaema abei

61(60).
  • Tuber phyllotaxis quincuncial; leaflets central leaflet shorter than; inflorescence appendage (sub)sessile; inflorescence appendage bears neuters or bristles ... Arisaema negishii
  • Tuber phyllotaxis spirodistichous; leaflets central leaflet as long as or longer than; inflorescence appendage stipitate; inflorescence appendage glabrous... Arisaema tosaense

62(53).
  • Shoot leaf trifoliolate ... Arisaema penicillatum
  • Shoot leaf pedate... 63

63(62).
  • Plant penducle shorter than; leaflets more than 5; inflorescence spadices female only; plant seasonally dormant and deciduous ... Arisaema negishii
  • Plant penducle nearly the size of; leaflets 5 at most; inflorescence spadices bisexual; plant aseasonal and evergreen (section Anomala)... Arisaema grapsospadix

64(28).
  • Inflorescence appendage glabrous ... 65
  • Inflorescence appendage bears neuters or bristles... 66

65(64).
  • Inflorescence appendage in the tube smooth ... Arisaema thunbergii subsp. UrashimaArisaema thunbergii subsp. autumnale
  • Inflorescence appendage in the tube rugose... Arisaema thunbergii subsp. thunbergii

66(64).
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity filiform ... Arisaema penicillatum
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity thin and 1-2 mm across... Arisaema grapsospadix
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity thicker than 1-2mm... 67

67(66).
  • Inflorescence spadix included in or slightly exserted from tube ... Arisaema heterocephalum
  • Inflorescence spadix protruding but not exceeding spathe... Arisaema ilanense

68(1).
  • Shoot leaf trifoliolate ... 69
  • Shoot leaf pedate... 95
  • Shoot leaf radiate... 110

69(68).
  • Inflorescence lamellae inside spathe ... 70
  • Inflorescence lamellae absent or outside spathe... 87

70(69).
  • Tuber underground stem elongated ... 71
  • Tuber underground stem subglobose... 74
  • Tuber underground stem saucer-shaped... 82

71(70).
  • Inflorescence limb slightly broader than tube; inflorescence limb fornicate or galeate; inflorescence appendage in the tube rugose ... 72
  • Inflorescence limb expanded, sometimes with conspicuous flaps; inflorescence limb not fornicate or galeate; inflorescence appendage in the tube smooth... 73

72(71).
  • Inflorescence tube inner surface smooth ... Arisaema speciosum var. mirabile
  • Inflorescence tube inner surface ribbed/lamellate... Arisaema speciosum ‘Ziro’

73(71).
  • Inflorescence limb partially to totally reticulate; inflorescence limb extremity obtuse or truncate; inflorescence appendage above fertile part (sub)truncate ... Arisaema dahaiense
  • Inflorescence limb not reticulate; inflorescence limb extremity acuminate or acute; inflorescence appendage above fertile part not (sub)truncate... Arisaema speciosum

74(70).
  • Inflorescence appendage above fertile part (sub)truncate ... 75
  • Inflorescence appendage above fertile part not (sub)truncate... 78

75(74).
  • Inflorescence limb fornicate or galeate ... 76
  • Inflorescence limb not fornicate or galeate... 77

76(75).
  • Shoot 1 leaf at most; leaflets central leaflet petiolulate; leaflets lateral leaflets all petiolulate; inflorescence tube inner surface smooth ... Arisaema galeatum
  • Shoot more than 1 leave; leaflets central leaflet (sub)sessile; leaflets lateral leaflets sometimes (sub)sessile; inflorescence tube inner surface ribbed/lamellate... Arisaema ostiolatum

77(75).
  • Inflorescence limb slightly broader than tube; inflorescence limb not reticulate; inflorescence limb extremity acuminate or acute ... Arisaema costatum
  • Inflorescence limb expanded, sometimes with conspicuous flaps; inflorescence limb partially to totally reticulate; inflorescence limb extremity obtuse or truncate... Arisaema vexillatum

78(74).
  • Shoot 1 leaf at most ... 79
  • Shoot more than 1 leave... 81

79(78).
  • Leaflets central leaflet petiolulate; leaflets lateral leaflets all petiolulate; inflorescence limb expanded, sometimes with conspicuous flaps ... Arisaema lingyunense
  • Leaflets central leaflet (sub)sessile; leaflets lateral leaflets sometimes (sub)sessile; inflorescence limb slightly broader than tube... 80

80(79).
  • Inflorescence limb fornicate or galeate; inflorescence limb not reticulate ... Arisaema pianmaense
  • Inflorescence limb not fornicate or galeate; inflorescence limb partially to totally reticulate... Arisaema tengtsungense

81(78).
  • Inflorescence tube inner surface smooth; shoot petiole and peduncle smooth ... Arisaema intermedium
  • Inflorescence tube inner surface ribbed/lamellate; shoot petiole and peduncle rugose with asperities or verrucosities... Arisaema propinquum

82(70).
  • Shoot 1 leaf at most ... 83
  • Shoot more than 1 leave... 85

83(82).
  • Inflorescence appendage above fertile part (sub)truncate ... Arisaema wilsoniiArisaema dilatatum
  • Inflorescence appendage above fertile part not (sub)truncate... 84

84(83).
  • Inflorescence appendage in the tube smooth ... Arisaema elephas
  • Inflorescence appendage in the tube rugose... Arisaema elephas var. handelii

85(82).
  • Plant germination with aerial blade, simple; inflorescence limb expanded, sometimes with conspicuous flaps; inflorescence appendage extremity filiform; inflorescence limb partially to totally reticulate ... 86
  • Plant germination with protocorm only, and no aerial blade; inflorescence limb slightly broader than tube; inflorescence appendage extremity thicker than 1-2mm; inflorescence limb not reticulate... Arisaema asperatum

86(85).
  • Infructescence receptacle whitish ... Arisaema utile
  • Infructescence receptacle purple... Arisaema griffithii

87(69).
  • Plant inflorescence emerges well before the foliage ... 88
  • Plant inflorescence emerges with the foliage... 90
  • Plant inflorescence emerges well after the foliage... 92
  • Plant inflorescence emerges independently... Arisaema lobatum

88(87).
  • Tuber phyllotaxis quincuncial; inflorescence spadix protruding but not exceeding spathe ... 89
  • Tuber phyllotaxis spirodistichous; inflorescence spadix included in or slightly exserted from tube... Arisaema lobatum

89(88).
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity thin and 1-2 mm across ... Arisaema lichiangense
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity thicker than 1-2mm... Arisaema candidissimum

90(87).
  • Inflorescence spadix included in or slightly exserted from tube ... 91
  • Inflorescence spadix protruding but not exceeding spathe... Arisaema franchetianum

91(90).
  • Tuber phyllotaxis quincuncial ... Arisaema fargesii
  • Tuber phyllotaxis spirodistichous... Arisaema lobatum

92(87).
  • Tuber phyllotaxis quincuncial; inflorescence appendage (sub)sessile ... 93
  • Tuber phyllotaxis spirodistichous; inflorescence appendage stipitate... Arisaema lobatum

93(92).
  • Plant penducle nearly the size of ... 94
  • Plant penducle longer than... Arisaema bathycoleum

94(93).
  • Shoot size of the petiole or longer; shoot 1 leaf at most; inflorescence spadices female only; plant appendage bent forward ... Arisaema yunnanense
  • Shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole; shoot more than 1 leave; inflorescence spadices bisexual; plant appendage S-shaped... Arisaema odoratum

95(68).
  • Inflorescence appendage glabrous ... 96
  • Inflorescence appendage bears neuters or bristles... 103

96(95).
  • Inflorescence stamen two anthers on one stamen ... 97
  • Inflorescence stamen fused stamens... 98

97(96).
  • Plant penducle nearly the size of; plant fruit peduncle nodding; inflorescence limb spotted; plant inflorescence emerges with the foliage ... Arisaema flavum subsp. abbreviatum
  • Plant penducle longer than; plant fruit peduncle erect; inflorescence limb plain/longitudinally striped; plant inflorescence emerges well before the foliage... Arisaema flavum subsp. tibeticum

98(96).
  • Inflorescence appendage stipitate ... 99
  • Inflorescence appendage (sub)sessile... 100

99(98).
  • Shoot size of the petiole or longer; leaflets 5 at most; leaflets not terminated; inflorescence appendage basis cylindrical ... Arisaema rhizomatum
  • Shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole; leaflets more than 5; leaflets terminated; inflorescence appendage basis conical... Arisaema decipiens

100(98).
  • Tuber non-stoloniferous ... 101
  • Tuber stoloniferous... Arisaema omeienseArisaema auriculatum

101(100).
  • Shoot 1 leaf at most; leaflets 5 at most ... Arisaema yunnanense var. aridum
  • Shoot more than 1 leave; leaflets more than 5... 102

102(101).
  • Plant germination with aerial blade, simple; inflorescence spadices female only; plant inflorescence emerges well after the foliage; plant penducle shorter than ... Arisaema saxatile
  • Plant germination with aerial blade, compound; inflorescence spadices bisexual; plant inflorescence emerges with the foliage; plant penducle nearly the size of... Arisaema tortuosum

103(95).
  • Leaflets 3 at most ... 104
  • Leaflets 5 at most... Arisaema nepenthoides
  • Leaflets more than 5... 105

104(103).
  • Inflorescence appendage stipitate ... Arisaema wattii
  • Inflorescence appendage (sub)sessile... Arisaema jinshajiangense

105(103).
  • Shoot 1 leaf at most ... 106
  • Shoot more than 1 leave... 108

106(105).
  • Plant germination with aerial blade, simple; inflorescence appendage stipitate ... Arisaema shimienenseArisaema meleagris
  • Plant germination with aerial blade, compound; inflorescence appendage (sub)sessile... 107

107(106).
  • Plant inflorescence emerges with the foliage; inflorescence spadices bisexual ... Arisaema heterophyllum
  • Plant inflorescence emerges well after the foliage; inflorescence spadices female only... Arisaema heterophyllum ‘Baguo’

108(105).
  • Inflorescence spadix included in or slightly exserted from tube; inflorescence appendage extremity thicker than 1-2mm ... 109
  • Inflorescence spadix protruding but not exceeding spathe; inflorescence appendage extremity thin and 1-2 mm across... Arisaema hunanense

109(108).
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is even ... Arisaema du-bois-reymondiae
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is knobbly/dentate... Arisaema clavatum

110(68).
  • Inflorescence appendage glabrous ... 111
  • Inflorescence appendage bears neuters or bristles... 116

111(110).
  • Inflorescence spadix included in or slightly exserted from tube ... 112
  • Inflorescence spadix protruding but not exceeding spathe... 114
  • Inflorescence spadix longer than spathe... Arisaema jacquemontii

112(111).
  • Tuber phyllotaxis quincuncial; leaflets 5 at most; leaflets symmetry not wheel-like ... Arisaema wardii
  • Tuber phyllotaxis spirodistichous; leaflets more than 5; leaflets symmetry wheel-like... 113

113(112).
  • Shoot 1 leaf at most; plant germination with aerial blade, simple; inflorescence tube mouth-margins widely recurved or auriculate; inflorescence limb expanded, sometimes with conspicuous flaps ... Arisaema erubescens
  • Shoot more than 1 leave; plant germination with aerial blade, compound; inflorescence tube mouth-margins straight or slightly recurved; inflorescence limb slightly broader than tube... Arisaema exappendiculatum

114(111).
  • Leaflets 5 at most; inflorescence tube mouth-margins widely recurved or auriculate; inflorescence limb spotted; inflorescence limb does not end in filiform head ... Arisaema hungyaense
  • Leaflets more than 5; inflorescence tube mouth-margins straight or slightly recurved; inflorescence limb plain/longitudinally striped; inflorescence limb ends in filiform head... 115

115(114).
  • Plant penducle shorter than; leaflets terminated; leaflets central leaflet petiolulate; leaflets lateral leaflets all petiolulate ... Arisaema souliei
  • Plant penducle nearly the size of; leaflets not terminated; leaflets central leaflet (sub)sessile; leaflets lateral leaflets sometimes (sub)sessile... Arisaema jacquemontii

116(110).
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is even ... 117
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is knobbly/dentate... 119
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is echinate... Arisaema echinatum

117(116).
  • Plant fruit peduncle nodding; shoot more than 1 leave; plant germination with aerial blade, simple; inflorescence tube mouth-margins widely recurved or auriculate ... 118
  • Plant fruit peduncle erect; shoot 1 leaf at most; plant germination with aerial blade, compound; inflorescence tube mouth-margins straight or slightly recurved... Arisaema fraternum

118(117).
  • Tuber non-stoloniferous ... Arisaema consanguineum
  • Tuber stoloniferous... Arisaema ciliatum var. liubaense

119(116).
  • Plant fruit peduncle nodding; shoot 1 leaf at most; plant germination with aerial blade, simple; inflorescence tube mouth-margins widely recurved or auriculate ... Arisaema ciliatum
  • Plant fruit peduncle erect; shoot more than 1 leave; plant germination with aerial blade, compound; inflorescence tube mouth-margins straight or slightly recurved... Arisaema concinnum

120(1).
  • Inflorescence appendage glabrous ... 121
  • Inflorescence appendage bears neuters or bristles... 125

121(120).
  • Tuber phyllotaxis quincuncial; shoot leaf pedate; Inflorescence stamen two anthers on one stamen; inflorescence appendage extremity is knobbly/dentate ... Arisaema flavum subsp. flavum
  • Tuber phyllotaxis spirodistichous; shoot leaf radiate; Inflorescence stamen fused stamens; inflorescence appendage extremity is even... 122

122(121).
  • Leaflets terminated ... 123
  • Leaflets not terminated... 124

123(122).
  • Shoot size of the petiole or longer ... Arisaema ulugurense
  • Shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole... Arisaema mooneyanum

124(122).
  • Inflorescence tube mouth-margins straight or slightly recurved; inflorescence limb ends in filiform head; inflorescence tube not constricted ... Arisaema schimperianum
  • Inflorescence tube mouth-margins widely recurved or auriculate; inflorescence limb does not end in filiform head; inflorescence tube constricted... Arisaema enneaphyllum

125(120).
  • Tuber phyllotaxis quincuncial; shoot more than 1 leave; shoot leaf pedate; inflorescence appendage extremity is even ... 126
  • Tuber phyllotaxis spirodistichous; shoot 1 leaf at most; shoot leaf radiate; inflorescence appendage extremity is knobbly/dentate... Arisaema constrictum

126(125).
  • Leaflets terminated ... Arisaema mildbraedii
  • Leaflets not terminated... Arisaema ruwenzoricum

127(1).
  • Shoot leaf pedate; tuber phyllotaxis quincuncial; Inflorescence stamen two anthers on one stamen ... 128
  • Shoot leaf radiate; tuber phyllotaxis spirodistichous; Inflorescence stamen fused stamens... Arisaema bottae

128(127).
  • Inflorescence limb plain/longitudinally striped; inflorescence appendage extremity is knobbly/dentate ... Arisaema flavum subsp. flavum
  • Inflorescence limb spotted; inflorescence appendage extremity is even... Arisaema flavum subsp. abbreviatum

129(1).
  • Leaflets 3 at most ... 130
  • Leaflets 5 at most... Arisaema triphyllum subsp. pusillum
  • Leaflets more than 5... 131

130(129).
  • Inflorescence tube outer surface smooth ... Arisaema triphyllum
  • Inflorescence tube outer surface ridged... Arisaema triphyllum subsp. stewardsonii

131(129).
  • Shoot size of the petiole or longer; inflorescence appendage bears neuters or bristles; plant inflorescence emerges with the foliage; leaflets central leaflet shorter than ... Arisaema dracontium
  • Shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole; inflorescence appendage glabrous; plant inflorescence emerges well before the foliage; leaflets central leaflet as long as or longer than... Arisaema macrospathum

132(1).
  • Tuber phyllotaxis quincuncial ... 133
  • Tuber phyllotaxis spirodistichous... 136

133(132).
  • Plant penducle shorter than ... 134
  • Plant penducle nearly the size of... Arisaema tortuosum
  • Plant penducle longer than... 135

134(133).
  • Shoot leaf pedate ... Arisaema sahyadricum
  • Shoot leaf radiate... Arisaema muricaudatum

135(133).
  • Shoot size of the petiole or longer; shoot more than 1 leave; shoot leaf pedate; inflorescence appendage glabrous ... Arisaema jethompsonii
  • Shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole; shoot 1 leaf at most; shoot leaf radiate; inflorescence appendage bears neuters or bristles... Arisaema murrayi

136(132).
  • Inflorescence limb slightly broader than tube ... 137
  • Inflorescence limb expanded, sometimes with conspicuous flaps... 140

137(136).
  • Inflorescence limb fornicate or galeate ... 138
  • Inflorescence limb not fornicate or galeate... 139

138(137).
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is even ... Arisaema translucens
  • Inflorescence appendage extremity is knobbly/dentate... Arisaema psittacus

139(137).
  • Shoot size of the petiole or longer; leaflets not terminated; leaflets central leaflet petiolulate; leaflets lateral leaflets all petiolulate ... Arisaema barnesii
  • Shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole; leaflets terminated; leaflets central leaflet (sub)sessile; leaflets lateral leaflets sometimes (sub)sessile... Arisaema tuberculatum

140(136).
  • Shoot size of the petiole or longer; inflorescence limb not fornicate or galeate ... 141
  • Shoot inconspicuous to much shorter than petiole; inflorescence limb fornicate or galeate... 142

141(140).
  • Inflorescence limb ends in filiform head; inflorescence spadix included in or slightly exserted from tube; inflorescence appendage extremity is even ... Arisaema leschenaultii
  • Inflorescence limb does not end in filiform head; inflorescence spadix protruding but not exceeding spathe; inflorescence appendage extremity is knobbly/dentate... Arisaema nilamburense

142(140).
  • Inflorescence tube mouth-margins straight or slightly recurved; inflorescence appendage extremity is even; inflorescence appendage subulate ... Arisaema sarracenioides
  • Inflorescence tube mouth-margins widely recurved or auriculate; inflorescence appendage extremity is knobbly/dentate; inflorescence appendage apically clavate or cylindric... Arisaema agasthyanum


Cite this publication as: Guy & Liliane Gusman, Eric Gouda, Pim Bongaerts & Joost van Gijn (2005 onwards). Key to Arisaema species of the world. Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. Version: 21st September 2000. Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993, 1995, 2000) should also be cited.


Last modified: October 2005 by E.J.Gouda